Location and Land Area
Bole District Assembly is established by LI 1786. It was carved out of the Gonja West District in 2004
Bole District is situated between latitudes 8’10.5 and 09’ and longitude 1.50E’ and 2.45 W. It is located at the extreme western part of the Northern region of Ghana and bordered to the North by the Sawla-Tuna-Kalba District, to the West by the Republic of Cote D`ivoire with the Black Volta being the boundary between the two neighboring countries, to the East by the West Gonja District, to the South-east by the Kintampo Municipal and the South-West by the Wenchi Municipal in Brong Ahafo Region. The Bole district covers an area of 6,169.2 kilometer square, out of the area of 69,766.2 kilometer square of the Northern region. This shows that, Bole district covers Nine percent (9.0%) of the total land area in the region.
From the 2010 census, the Bole district has a population of 61,593 comprising 51.4 percent of males and 49.6 percent of females. The population is sparsely distributed with a population density of about 10 persons per kilometer square.
The vegetation of the district consists of savannah wood land, with economic trees such as sheanut, dawadawa, teak, kapok and mango. These trees support the socio-economic lives of the people when they are processed.
There are various kinds of soils in the district that support plant growth. The main types of soils include savannah ochrosols, tropical brown earth and terrace soils. The savannah ochrosols are generally poor in organic matter and nutrient because of the absence of dense vegetation caused by bush burning, overgrazing and poor farming practices in the district. It is important to note that, the tropical brown earth is suitable for mechanized farming. The terrace soils occur along rivers and suitable for grain crops and tobacco.
Cultural and Social Structure
The major ethnic groups in the Bole district include: Gonja, Vagla, Safalba and Mo. It is worth noting that, there are migrant ethnic groups such as Brifor, Lobi and Dagaaba whose main occupation has been subsistence farming. Major festivals celebrated in the district are the Deng, Damba, Jintigi, Achan, Eleishi and the Kachunu. All the ethnic groups that can be found in the district practice patrilineal system of inheritance (i. e from father to child).
The district has an agrarian economy which is indicative of the large quantity of agricultural products produced every year. With a favorable environment, suitable intervention measures can result in the area being a food basket of the region. A wide variety of crops are cultivated such as maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, and groundnuts. Marketing of agricultural produce is quite challenging since there are three (3) main markets. Inter district trade with the neighboring districts such as the Sawla-Tuna-Kalba, Wa and the southern parts of the country is quite encouraging. Petty trading is concentrated at Bole, Bamboi and Tinga.
The district has a number of tourism potentials which if developed can open up the area to tourists. Some of these include: The Deng festival in Sonyo celebrated annually (May); the Sonyor architectural & lifestyle festival, the Hippo Sanctuary in Ntereso, Mankuma royal mausoleum where the Kings of Gonja Kingdom are buried, Damba festival held six months after the Moslem fasting, Bui gorge located at the southern part of the district and historical Mosques at Bole, Maluwe and Banda Nkwanta, Kadeo festival held on the 26th /27th day of the annual Ramadan fasting, the Seidublay festival held between April & May every year, Jintigi festival characterized by the remembrance of the ancestors. Even though the district has a number of tourism potentials many of these sites need to be developed and well organized if they are to attract many more tourists into the district.
Mining and Quarrying
Illegal small scale mining activities (“galamsey”) has in recent times assumed an unproportioned dimension never experienced in the economic life of the district. Kui, Tinga, Dakrupe, Banda Nkwanta, Gbombiri, and “Camp” are now settlements with migrant populations in their thousands, coming from all parts of the country including some neighbouring countries like Burkina Faso, Togo, Mali, and Nigeria. This has brought about security concerns in recent times with armed robbery on the increase in the district, prostitution on the increase in an era of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections which put a lot of pressure on the few health facilities in the district.
Population Size and Distribution
Population size, composition and age-sex structure are important characteristics that have many social and economic implications on the welfare of people. The population composition by age and sex influences mortality, fertility, migration and other demographic processes that underlie population growth and ultimately socio-economic development. This chapter discusses the population distribution by age, sex and locality. It also presents data on sex ratios, fertility, and mortality levels.
Bole district recorded a population of 61,593 comprising 31,022 males and 30,571 females. The population is sparsely distributed with a density of 10.0 persons per square kilometers compared to the population of 35.2 persons per square kilometers for the region. The current population of the District stands at 73,241 from the projection of growth rate of 2.5% from the 2010 Population census.